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Saturday, March 11

  1. page learning theories edited ... What might cognition be if not computation? Answer: the Watt Governor James Gee (semiotic dom…
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    What might cognition be if not computation? Answer: the Watt Governor
    James Gee (semiotic domains, game related learning theory)
    Dan Willingham "learning styles don't exist, the important thing is meaning"
    Dan Willingham book: Why Don't Students Like School?

    INSTRUCTIONISM: educational outcomes can be identified: fact recall, skills and attitudes. Education can be optimised to achieve measurable changes in these desired outcomes
    behaviourism
    ...
    Carl Wieman "optimising learning"
    John Hattie - the difference between expert teachers and experienced teachers
    Dan Willingham "learning styles don't exist, the important thing is meaning"
    Dan Willingham book: Why Don't Students Like School?

    Andy diSessa
    (view changes)
    7:11 pm
  2. page learning theories edited ... John Hattie - the difference between expert teachers and experienced teachers Dan Willingham …
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    John Hattie - the difference between expert teachers and experienced teachers
    Dan Willingham "learning styles don't exist, the important thing is meaning"
    Dan Willingham book: Why Don't Students Like School?
    Andy diSessa
    (view changes)
    5:03 pm
  3. page hofstadter edited Douglas Hofstadter Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern (1985) conta…
    Douglas Hofstadter
    Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern (1985)
    contains: 'Waking Up from the Boolean Dream, or, Subcogniton as Computation' (1982)

    Metamagical Themas: Questing For the Essence of Mind and Pattern by Douglas Hofstadter (1985)
    Essay 26: Waking up from the Boolean Dream, or, Subcognition as Computation
    (view changes)
    4:51 pm
  4. page hofstadter edited ... Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern (1985) contains: 'Waking Up …
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    Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern (1985)
    contains: 'Waking Up from the Boolean Dream, or, Subcogniton as Computation' (1982)
    Metamagical Themas: Questing For the Essence of Mind and Pattern by Douglas Hofstadter (1985)
    Essay 26: Waking up from the Boolean Dream, or, Subcognition as Computation

    The central problem for AI is the question: What is the letter 'a'? (p. 633)
    Perception is where it's at!
    ...
    to contrast what is with our way of seeing things
    sideways connections
    contains: 'VariationsEssay 12: Variations on a
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    Crux of Creativity'Creativity (1982)
    Slipping can follow unpredictable path - malapropism, malaphor
    ...
    eg. MetaFont (240)
    variations of letter A on page 243!!!
    ...
    seeing anyway (247)
    each new concept begins life as a compound of previous concepts, and that from the slippability of those concepts, it inherits a certain amount of slippability ...
    ...
    retrieval ...
    where
    (249)
    Arthur Koestler .... Act of Creation .... presents a theory of creativity whose key concept he calls 'bisociation' - the simultaneous activation and interaction of two previously unconnected concepts ... something new can happen when two concepts 'collide' and fuse - something not present in the concepts themselves ... in keeping with Koestler's philosophy that wholes are somehow greater than the sum of their parts ... By contrast, I have been emphasizing the idea of the internal structure of one concept ... the divisibility of concepts into subconceptual elements (250)
    BK: Koestler's holism neglects internal contradictions
    Reader criticism ... making variations (ie. twisting knobs) is easy ... so how can genius be that easy? (251)
    For a genius it is easy to be a genius
    the crux of creativity is not in twiddling knobs, but in spotting them ... where
    do good
    ...
    else ... (251)
    - fresh situations get unconsciously framed in terms of familiar concepts
    - those familiar concepts come equipped with standard knobs to twiddle
    - twiddling those knobs carries you into fresh new conceptual territory
    (254)
    making concept into a legitimate scientific term is the central goal of cognitive science
    you let your memory and perceptual mechanism do all the hard work for you (pulling concepts from dormancy); all you do is twiddle knobs (255)

    The concept of the implicosphere of an idea - the sphere of variations on it resulting from the twiddling of many knobs a "reasonable" amount - is a difficult one ...
    Slippage of thought is a remarkably invisible phenomenon
    (view changes)
    1:14 pm

Saturday, March 4

  1. page Dan Willingham edited ... an intransitive verb doesn't have an object, eg. snored, laughed, work Thinking (from Chapter…
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    an intransitive verb doesn't have an object, eg. snored, laughed, work
    Thinking (from Chapter 1): combining information in new ways. The information can come from long term memory or the environment. So, in today's world, where you can find information quickly on the internet, is there a reason to memorise anything?
    ...
    are separate (22)(22).
    BK: cf Brian Harvey, SNAP manual: Alonzo Church: procedures as data. In SNAP all data is first class. In Scratch numbers and text strings are first class but lists are not. In Scratch you can't put a list into a variable, into an input slot of a block or into a list item. In SNAP you can. I need to explore this concept more. It sounds more powerful but it is not clear to me why it is more powerful.
    Thus if you learn a new thinking operation (for example, how to critically analyse historical documents), that operation should be applicable to all historical documents ... NOT SO ... critical thinking about WW2 does not transfer to thinking about the current situation in the Middle East or the start of the American Revolutionary War. Critical thinking processes are tied to background knowledge - although they become much less so when we become quite experienced, described in Chapter 6
    Knowledge is essential to reading comprehension
    1 it provides vocabulary
    2 it allows you to bridge logical gaps that writers leave
    3 it allows chunking, which increases room in working memory and thereby makes it easier to tie ideas together
    4 it guides the interpretation of ambiguous sentences
    the fourth grade slump - students from underprivileged homes often read to grade level through to third grade but then suddenly in the fourth grade they fall behind (as the emphasis shifts from decoding to comprehension)
    Background knowledge is necessary for cognitive skills
    Factual knowledge improves your memory
    Implications for the classroom
    How to evaluate which knowledge to instill
    Be sure that the knowledge base is mostly in place when you require critical thinking
    Shallow knowledge is better than no knowledge
    Do whatever you can to get kids to read
    Knowledge acquisition can be incidental
    Start early
    Knowledge must be meaningful
    Chapter 3 Memory is the residue to thought
    Your memory is a product of what you think about
    Paying attention 44
    What good teachers have in common

    (view changes)
    2:31 am

Friday, March 3

  1. page Dan Willingham edited ... "very simple model of the mind" (p. 11) Thinking is when you combine knowledge from…
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    "very simple model of the mind" (p. 11)
    Thinking is when you combine knowledge from the environment and long term memory in new ways!
    BK: cf. Hofstadter: the crux of creativity is variations on a theme (1982 article)
    Long term memory contains both procedural knowledge and factual knowledge
    Procedural knowledge is like a recipe to accomplish a particular type of thought. eg. procedure of multiplying 18x7 or to calculate the area of a triangle or to copy a computer file, etc.
    ...
    Change the pace
    Keep a diary
    Chapter 2: Factual Knowledge must precede skill
    Negative Stereotype: Narrow minded schoolmaster demanding that students parrot facts ... as old as Dickens Hard Times (1854)
    Many think that the regurgitation of facts works against the higher order thinking skills of analysis, synthesis or critique
    Truth 1: memorising lists of dry facts is not enriching
    Truth 2: It is impossible to teach skills such as analysis or synthesis in the absence of factual knowledge
    Einstein: "Imagination is more important than knowledge" WRONG!!
    "to think is a transitive verb. You need something to think about"
    BK: cf Papert: "You cannot think about thinking, without thinking about thinking about something" (Society of Mind, p. 22)
    a transitive verb takes a direct object, eg. think about maths, read a pamphlet , played the piano, loves, eats
    an intransitive verb doesn't have an object, eg. snored, laughed, work
    Thinking (from Chapter 1): combining information in new ways. The information can come from long term memory or the environment. So, in today's world, where you can find information quickly on the internet, is there a reason to memorise anything?
    Thinking - Calculator comparison: the data (numbers) and operations (+ - * /) are separate (22)

    (view changes)
    5:54 pm

Sunday, February 26

  1. page Dan Willingham edited ... How Thinking Works (10) {mind.jpg} Procedural "very simple model of the mind" (…
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    How Thinking Works (10)
    {mind.jpg}
    Procedural"very simple model of the mind" (p. 11)
    Thinking is when you combine
    knowledge from the environment and long term memory in new ways!
    Long term memory contains both procedural knowledge and factual knowledge
    Procedural knowledge is like a recipe to accomplish a particular type of thought. eg. procedure of multiplying 18x7 or to calculate the area of a triangle or to copy a computer file, etc.

    Factual knowledge - discussed more in Chapter 2
    "... successful thinking relies on four factors: information from the environment, facts in long term memory, procedures in long term memory, and the amount of space in working memory. If any one of these factors is inadequate, thinking will likely fail" (p. 14)
    Implications for the Classroom
    Be sure that there are problems to be solved: moderate challenges
    ...
    avoid overloading of working memory, eg. multistep instructions, lists of unconnected facts, chains of logic more than 2 or 3 steps long and the application of a just learned concept to new material. Use scaffolding, eg. writing on the board, to assist working memory
    Clarifying the
    ...
    be solved: ask interesting questions
    ...
    can be solvedsolved, organise around questions that provide the answers that we want our audience to learn
    Key question
    How to frame that question
    Right level of difficulty to engage students
    Respect your students cognitive limitations

    Puzzles evoke interest!
    Build on individual ability
    (view changes)
    12:59 am

Friday, February 24

  1. page Dan Willingham edited ... "... we like to think if we judge that the mental effort will pay off with the pleasurabl…
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    "... we like to think if we judge that the mental effort will pay off with the pleasurable feeling we get when we solve a problem ... curiosity prompts people to explore new ideas and problems, but when we do, we quickly evaluate how much mental work it will take to solve a problem. If it's too much or too little, we stop working on the problem if we can" (p. 10)
    How Thinking Works (10)
    DIAGRAM{mind.jpg}
    Procedural knowledge
    Factual knowledge
    (view changes)
    4:05 pm
  2. file mind.jpg uploaded
    4:03 pm

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